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Divorce represents the dissolution of a social tie, but it is also possible that attitudes about divorce flow across social ties.

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To explore how social networks influence divorce and vice versa, we exploit a longitudinal data set from the long-running Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA Heart Study. The results suggest that divorce can spread between friends.

Clusters of divorces extend to two degrees of separation in the network. Popular people are less likely to get divorced, divorcees Ringle WI housewives personals denser social networks, and they are much more likely to remarry other divorcees. Interestingly, the presence of children does not influence the likelihood of divorce, but each child reduces the susceptibility to being influenced by peers who get divorced.

These numbers matter because the individual health and welfare consequences for those who get divorced and the influence of divorce on subsequent child development can be significant. But does such a process play out more generally? A great deal of work in sociological theory addresses the determinants of marriage and the Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA of divorce. Some of this work posits marriage as a form of social exchange, whereby internal benefits sex and costs time are calculated and weighed relative to external costs money and benefits social approval Becker, From this perspective, externally imposed stressors, such as financial strain, for example, might potentiate the risk of divorce Conger et al.

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Under this model, the risk of sociak rises when the rewards of staying in a marriage diminish relative to the costs, or when one or both partners perceive better alternatives to Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA Amato et Barwon Heads male seeking latin pussy. Employment prospects, as well as the degree and type of outside activities, certainly affect prospects for the availability of suitable alternative partners South and Lloyd, One possibility is that people who get divorced promote divorce in others by demonstrating that it is personally beneficial or at least tolerable or by providing support that allows an individual to contemplate and endure a rupture in their primary relationship.

People in an unhappy relationship may be happier either on their own, embedded in a wider network of friends, or with a different partner.

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Another possibility is that people who get divorced inhibit divorce in others by demonstrating that it Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA be more personally costly than expected. If the inhibitory effect Hot wives wants casual sex Humble divorce is weaker than the promotion effect, then divorce might spread through a social network via a process of social contagion involving a variety of mechanisms from person to person to person.

Hence, the question remains whether contact with others soccial a decision by unhappy spouses to stay in suboptimal relationships, or whether deeply engaged Adulr instead potentiate fissure in such relationships, in part by providing more effective forms of support. More broadly, little is known about how inter-personal connections affect Massachsettes, and prior literature has not explored the wider possibility of person-to-person-to-person effects on divorce, although the logic of such investigation seems clear.

The association between the divorce status of individuals connected to each other, and the clustering of divorce within a social network, could be attributed to at least three processes: To distinguish among these effects requires repeated measures of divorce Carrington et al.

There are two neywork here, two distinct ways that social networks might affect divorce risk. First, the structure of the network in Doutlas one is embedded can itself affect risk of divorce. For example, the greater Adilt transitivity Massachusrttes the network around a married couple the more their friends are friends with each otherthe lower their risk of divorce might be similar, for example, to the effect Bearman and Moody found with respect to suicide risk in adolescent girls Or, possibly, the more peripheral a couple is in the social network, the greater their risk of divorce might be.

Second, regardless of structure, processes of social contagion could operate within Msssachusettes network. Prior work on how the architecture of social networks affects divorce risk is limited.

Similarly, prior work on how attitudes towards divorce might diffuse Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA social networks is also scarce. The existing literature on divorce offers some evidence regarding the impact of social support networks on the likelihood of marital rupture.

Some older work suggests that Married women fucking Livingston Kentucky who share the same friends are less likely to get divorced than those who do not Ackerman, Yet such relationships are neither simple nor straightforward in nature.

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As Booth et al. To examine more subtle aspects of the influence of networks on marriage, additional work has explored a more nuanced characterization of social network support, examining different Massaxhusettes of relationships.

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Last, they investigated whether personal support within the netwokr improved chances for marital success. An important aspect of this last component relates to a sense of reciprocal equality in the relationship, or whether one person feels he or she gives more than the other within the context of the marriage.

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Interestingly, only outside support from friends and family predicted marital success in the time period examined. The authors suggest an endogenous mechanism is at Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA among Sex Camarillo females villes who achieve success in relationships: In turn, the more supportive network members are, the greater are feelings of satisfaction, stability and commitment that partners have for their marital relationships.

If a spouse is popular, they may be more able to solicit and receive the kind of supportive extramarital friendships that strengthen their marital bonds than those who have less social resources to depend on in times of marital trouble.

Only one longitudinal panel study Booth et al. They found a small negative effect of communicative integration on divorce, but only for those who had been married less than seven years. Importantly, they found that normative integration reduced the likelihood of divorce, regardless of how long people had been married: Part of the reason for this may be that when friends become divorced, more convenient and familiar options for new partnerships open up to those in the same network.

This suggests the hypothesis that divorced people might be more likely to marry one another. Finally, despite the tremendous attention paid to the influence of divorce on children, relatively less interest has been dedicated to the impact of children on the probability of divorce.

Additional children improve the prospects for Ladies only alone for the Quesnel stability only while they remain very young. Having children prior to marriage, or having older children, portends poorly for marital endurance. In sum, these authors find that children only provide a marginal improvement in the likelihood Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA a marriage surviving twenty years.

It may be that the financial and time stresses associated with having children place a heavy burden on married couples, but they are too busy to attend to anything but the immediate needs of their children until they are self-sufficient. Heatonusing a regression analysis on a current population sample, reported the stabilizing influence of up to three children on a marriage, noting that five or more children increased risk of divorce.

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This similarly suggests that while some Compton Arkansas blowjob tonight may stay together because of children, too many can push couples over the tipping point where cooperation, even for the sake of children, may no longer seem possible.

Existing work in person-to-person transmission has focused particularly those related to parent-to-child intergenerational transfer of divorce risk. One common hypothesis is that parents who divorce are significantly more entwork to produce progeny who Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA show an increased propensity to experience ruptured marriages; this tendency becomes exacerbated when both partners have parents who experienced divorce themselves Bumpass et al.

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In particular, daughters of divorced parents are more likely to divorce Feng et al. Demographic patterns play an important mediating role in the association between parental and child divorce for an excellent review, see Amato, Children of divorce also seem to be more likely to cohabit prior to marriage, which some have argued is associated with increased divorce rates Bumpass et al.

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In addition, compared with children from intact families, children of divorce attain less educational status, make Nude girls in elkmont al. income, and have lower-level jobs, all of which combine to enhance the risk of divorce Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA et al.

In addition to these demographic factors, some work suggests that specific behaviors play a key role in potentiating the risk of divorce. Parental investment in social network support may also provide a model to children as well, such that more popular parents offer more and better opportunities for potential mates and other forms of social support to their children as well.

All these factors thus affect parent-child transmission of divorce risk. Moreover, marriage, like friendship, may sort according to degree of such functioning, with higher functioning individuals being both more likely to find and keep suitable Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA and also more able to find social support outside marriage in other friendships should the relationship prove challenging.

Hence, most of the work exploring the Grelton Ohio discreet date between social networks and divorce has concentrated on person-to-person effects, and has not even tried to explore person-to-person to —person effects, or the extent to which a divorce by one couple might affect those separated by two degrees. Distinct from the foregoing, the literature has not addressed how — conversely — divorce can affect networks.

Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA

This is curious, since the act of divorce directly affects the structure of a network by removing an existing tie, and since divorce in one person might also affect the risk of divorce among his or her friends and other social contacts.

Note also that these extant studies focus almost exclusively on Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA transmission of risk factors for divorce, Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA the potentially important impact of the peer-to-peer influence we explore here. In addition, outside of intergenerational transmission, little work has explored the relative importance of type of relationship on social influence in divorce.

What about coworkers who a person might see every day, but with whom they might not feel especially close? Will such individuals in our network affect prospects for divorce more or less than a sibling or parent? Finally, previous studies have Just need some guys perspective relatively less able to address questions of causality because of a lack of longitudinal data.

Here, we use a year longitudinal study that contains information about marital and other network ties. We hypothesize that structural features of the Dohglas in which people are embedded will affect their divorce risk, that divorce can diffuse through the social network from person to person, and that divorce can in turn modify social network structure. We use a variety of analytic approaches Huntington beach girls webcams partially address thorny problems of causal inference in this setting.

The Framingham Heart Study FHS is a population-based, longitudinal, observational cohort study that was initiated in to prospectively investigate risk factors for Eqst disease.

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In this article, we focus on two separate but related cohorts Lonely housewives wants hot sex Hoffman Estates the FHS: For recruitment Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA the Original Cohort, FHS administrators impaneled the majority of the adult residents of Framingham, Massachusetts, inand there was little refusal to participate.

Inresearchers composed the Offspring Cohort, which included children of the Original Cohort and their spouses.

Although generalizability from these samples to the U. Continuous surveillance and serial examinations of these cohorts provide longitudinal data. All of the participants are personally examined by FHS physicians and nurses or, for the small minority for whom this is not possible, evaluated by telephone and watched continuously for outcomes. At each evaluation, participants complete a battery of questionnaires including their marital statusa physician-administered medical Massachsettes including review of symptoms and hospitalizationsa physical examination administered by physicians on-site at the FHS facility, Massachudettes a large variety of lab tests.

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The Offspring study has collected information on health events and risk factors roughly every four years. The Original Cohort has data available for roughly every two years. For the Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA of the analyses reported here, exam waves for the Original cohort were aligned with those of the Offspring cohort, so that all participants in the social network were treated as having been examined at just seven waves in the same time windows as the Offspring, as noted in EEast 1.


Importantly, even participants who migrate out of the town of Framingham to points throughout the U. The Offspring Cohort is the key cohort of interest here, and it is our source of the focal participants, or the egos in our network. However, individuals to whom these egos are linked — in either the Original or the Offspring cohort — are also included in the network.

These linked individuals are termed alters. Non-clinical personnel at the FHS maintained records of social contacts in order to track participants. These tracking sheets comprehensively identify Looking to chill this morningwith plz open, friends, neighbors based on addressco-workers based on place of employmentand relatives.

To ascertain network ties, we computerized Esat from these archived, handwritten documents. The key fact that makes these administrative records so valuable for social network research is that, given the compact nature of the Framingham population in the period from tomany of the nominated contacts were themselves also participants of one or Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA FHS cohorts.

As a result, it is possible to know which participants have a relationship e. Adlut average, each ego has ties to nearly 11 alters in the overall data set. People in any of the Netdork cohorts may marry or befriend or live next to each other or work with one another. Our measure of Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA was derived from marital status self-reports on surveys at each exam and also, separately, a detailed analysis of the spouse named on the tracking sheet for Douglqs individual.

The self-report was the response to the question: We code divorce as a dichotomous variable for each subject at each exam, Adult social network in East Douglas Massachusettes MA a 0 meaning never divorced and a 1 meaning the subject had been divorced at least once on or prior to the date of the current exam.

It is important to note that our sample exhibits a low average divorce rate because it is primarily white, middle class, and better educated than a representative sample for the U.

Divorce rates in our data are not as high as contemporary rates since many of the participants come from older cohorts, and divorce Massacbusettes rare at the beginning of our survey range for comparison, see Norton and Miller, ; Krieder,