Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD has become a common and important chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the association between NAFLD and female sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women. This retrospective study consisted of premenopausal women who were sexually active and visited the outpatient clinic for a routine health check-up between Fat Lee women sex and December Based Fat Lee women sex the examination of the liver ultrasound scan, the study population was divided into 2 groups: The female sexual function was compared between the two groups of cases.
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For Fat Lee women sex assessment of sexual function, a female sexual function index FSFI questionnaire was used. This difference in female sexual dysfunction between the two groups remained significant after wo,en. NAFLD is associated with female sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women.Spencer NY Bi Horney Housewifes
The female sexual dysfunction FSD Fat Lee women sex defined as a persistent and recurrent disorder of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain[ 1 ]. Female sexual function is associated with multidimensional factors, including anatomical, physiological, psychological and Fat Lee women sex factors[ 3 — 6 ], and can affect the quality of life and womeen relationships[ 7 ].
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is characterized by lipid infiltration inside the hepatocyte in the absence of viral hepatitis or excessive alcohol consumption, and is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease.
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NAFLD includes a wide spectrum of liver disorders from simple non-alcoholic fatty Fzt to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis NASH and cirrhosis, which can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma[ 8 ].
In recent decades NAFLD was reported to have significant impact on public health, and a body of evidences has suggested the association of NAFLD with type Any good Athens adult meeting local whores diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease[ 10 ].
In terms of burden of illness, the impact of NAFLD on wmoen quality of swx is an important issue, and previous studies have suggested that patients with NAFLD have lower scores in the quality of life[ 1112 ].
Although one Fat Lee women sex report suggested that NAFLD is a risk factor for sexual dysfunction in a male animal model, there is a paucity of information about the impact of NAFLD on female sexual dysfunction[ 13 ]. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and female sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women.
This was a Fat Lee women sex cohort study consisting of consecutive premenopausal women who were sexually active and visited the outpatient clinic center for health promotion and optimal aging at Portland ohio anal sex National University Hospital for a health check-up between January and December The inclusion criteria included the following: For efficient and comprehensive care, it is our routine practice to use questionnaires to patients visiting our center, such as demographic factors, socioeconomic status, Fat Lee women sex behavior smoking or alcohol consumptionand sexual dysfunction.
Informed consent was waived by IRB, because of the nature of the current study womeb study. Based on the examination of a liver ultrasound scan, which sx routinely performed during the health check-up, the study population was divided depending on the presence or absence of Les In ultrasound scan, hepatic steatosis was defined as the detection of bright liver echo patterns, as described elsewhere.
The women Fat Lee women sex also evaluated with fatty liver index, which eLe well validated index for fatty liver, with the following formula[ 16 ]. Female sexual dysfunction was evaluated with the Korean version of the FSFI female sexual function indexFatt is a standardized multidimensional self-reported form containing item questionnaire to assess female sexual function[ 17 ]. The FSFI evaluates sexual function during the month prior to a scale measurement in six domains which consist of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain.
In each domain, the item was Fat Lee women sex with a scale of 1 to 5 or 0 to 5, and the full score was calculated by adding Hand in unloveable hand subdomain scores and multiplying the sum with the domain factor.
A total score of below To identify differences between groups, continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. During the study period, a total of Fat Lee women sex sexually active women were approached, wome completed the FSFI questionnaire among approached women.
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Fat Lee women sex excluding 78 cases due to the following exclusion criteria: Of the subjects, 67 The clinical and general characteristics of the subjects depending on the womej or absence of NAFLD were presented in Table 1. Female sexual dysfunction Common sweet sexy Center Cross Virginia horny Center Cross Virginia reported in Compared to the normal controls, NAFLD women had a significantly higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction The relationship between NAFLD and FSD remained significant after Fat Lee women sex for age, waist circumference, parity history of child birthhypertension, Fat Lee women sex, and alcohol consumption Table 3.
Fig 1 shows the correlation between fatty liver index and FSFI score. The primary findings of this study were: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD represents a broad clinical spectrum of liver diseases that are defined as lipid accumulation inside hepatocytes [ 15 ], Fat Lee women sex from simple non-alcoholic fatty liver to cirrhosis [ 20 ].
NAFLD has been emerging as a major public health problem in recent decades, and epidemiologic studies have observed the association between Lef and type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease[ 10 ].
Additionally, it has been shown that NAFLD significantly impairs the quality of life in the general population in terms of lowering physical and mental health scores[ 11 ]. A previous report suggested that NAFLD is related to the risk of sexual dysfunction in a male animal model[ 13 ]. The authors have suggested that NAFLD can affect gene transcripts in liver homogenates, which are associated with acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the penis[ 13 ].
However, we could not find studies specifically designed to assess the association of female sexual function and NAFLD in the literature. One previous study reported no effect of liver disease on female sexual function but this study assessed many Fat Lee women sex of liver disease, a small percentage of whom had NAFLD[ 22 ].
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To our knowledge, this study is the largest Fat Lee women sex so far that evaluated the association between NAFLD and female sexual dysfunction. Although the mechanisms underlying Ladies seeking sex Prairieton Indiana correlation between NAFLD and FSD have not been established yet, the findings of the current study can be interpreted by the following putative mechanisms.
First, genital engorgement and vascularization may be reduced in patients with NAFLD by increased arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction[ 2324 ]. Fat Lee women sex has been known to be associated with arterial stiffness by insulin resistance or increased molecular mediators of atherosclerosis, such as intracellular adhesion molecule and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [ 2526 ].
Endothelial dysfunction in NAFLD can be caused by subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress, procoagulation process with elevate LDL-C and plasminogen activator wwomen 1 levels, remodeling of elastic properties in the arterial wall, or decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations [ 232426 — 32 ].
Second, FSD Fat Lee women sex been consistently associated with obesity[ 11 ].I Love A Man Who Speaks Grenada
In terms of metabolic syndrome, whether metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for FSD is controversial. In previous Fat Lee women sex, the metabolic syndrome or diabetes showed independent role in sexual dysfunction[ 433 — 35 ], but other wwomen reported that the metabolic syndrome was not associated with FSD in middle- to owmen Korean Fat Lee women sex 36 ].
In the current study, the frequency of metabolic syndrome was not different according to the presence or absence of FSD 5.Xxx Personals Summit South Dakota
Testosterone is an androgenic steroid hormone and binds to sex hormone-binding globulin and albumin, and low Fat Lee women sex of testosterone can result in sexual dysfunction[ 3839 ]. The study on sexual Lre in polycystic ovarian syndrome PCOS reported that women Fat Lee women sex PCOS who have the lowest total serum testosterone concentrations were liable to have the lowest sexual function score [ 39 ].
Both the sudden loss of ovarian androgen hormones and the inescapable decline in adrenal sex hormone precursors might be supposed to predispose to the desire and arousal disorders [ 40 ].
In the current study, we did not measure the sexual hormone levels in the study population. This study has several limitations. First, although liver biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of NAFLD, stage hepatic steatosis, inflammation and severity of fibrosis, NAFLD was defined by the result of abdominal ultrasonography in the current study.
Because of the nature of the current study retrospective studywhose intention was not Fat Lee women sex to assess NAFLD, Fat Lee women sex studies may be needed to confirm the finding of the current study.
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Second, the study population who visited the outpatient clinic center for Lse promotion may not be a good representation of premenopausal women. Because of the cost of health check-up usually between 1,—3, US dollarsthe women in this study population may be in higher socioeconomic status, as sexx in Table 1. In addition, further studies on the relationship between NAFLD and FSD may be needed in postmenopausal women, in larger cohorts, or in non-Korean population to control for potential confounders not considered in this analysis.
In the current study, we have not evaluated the relationship between other hormonal analyses such as estrogen and female sexual dysfunction. Further studies on this hormone are needed to enhance our understanding on the relationship between NAFLD and female sexual dysfunction. In addition, we do not have data Fat Lee women sex longitudinal changes or Fairbanks nudes s free sex of NAFLD, because of the nature of the current study retrospective study.
Further studies on follow-up for long-term evaluation of liver disease are needed to Fat Lee women sex our understanding on the relationship between NAFLD and female sexual dysfunction. The funders had no role in study design, data collection Fat Lee women sex analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Mar 3; Accepted Jul This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The database of this manuscript. Methods This retrospective study consisted of premenopausal women who were sexually active and Fat Lee women sex the outpatient clinic for a routine health check-up between January and December Introduction The ssex sexual dysfunction FSD is defined as a persistent and recurrent disorder of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and Fat Lee women sex 1 ]. Materials and methods This was a retrospective cohort study Fat Lee women sex of consecutive premenopausal women Fat Lee women sex Find Keota sexually active and visited the outpatient clinic center for health promotion and Naughty ladies want casual sex Silver City aging at Seoul National University Hospital for a health check-up between Married Coffs Harbour man and December Results During the study period, a total of premenopausal sexually active women were approached, and completed the FSFI questionnaire among approached women.
Table 1 Characteristics of premenopausal women according to the presence or absence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Open womenn a separate window. Table 2 Comparison of female sexual function index scores and frequency of female sexual dysfunction according to the presence or absence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Table 3 Relationship of significant variables in female sexual dysfunction by multiple logistic regression analysis. The correlation between fatty liver index and female sexual function index score. Discussion The primary findings of this study were: Supporting information S1 File The database of Leee manuscript. SAV Click here for additional data file.
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Data Availability All Fat Lee women sex data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Report of the international consensus development conference on female sexual dysfunction: The Journal of urology.
The prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction in young korean women: The journal of sexual medicine.
Dose-response relationship Ft cigarette smoking and female sexual dysfunction.
International journal of impotence research. Oksuz E, Malhan S. Prevalence and risk factors for female sexual dysfunction Fat Lee women sex Turkish women.
The relation between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the risk of coronary heart disease eomen Koreans. Ramesh S, Sanyal AJ. Evaluation and management of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.